- An aging population will place greater pressure on firms to attract and retain high-potential women to fill skill shortages
- But, the Canadian workplace may be experiencing a topping out of female participation among the core working age group (25-44) -- the feeder pool into higher level positions
- The unexplained portion of the gender gap appears to largely capture a 'motherhood gap'
- Skills atrophy plays a smaller role in the motherhood gap than first thought
- The length of absence is generally found to be less damaging than the frequency of absences
- Women incur far less financial penalty the more experience they build before exiting, irrespective of the length of time they ultimately remain out of the workforce
- Returning to the same employer also reduces the wage penalty
- Firms should self-explore whether the non-linear career path of mothers is penalized as a negative signal of labour force attachment or ambition