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About the Childcare Resource and Research Unit

The Childcare Resource and Research Unit is an early childhood education and child care (ECEC) policy research institute with a mandate to further ECEC policy and programs in Canada.

About Martha Friendly, CRRU Executive Director

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Martha Friendly is the founder and Executive Director of the Childcare Resource and Research Unit. She has authored numerous articles, chapters and reports on child care and a book on child care policy, and participates in several child care advocacy groups.
Martha Friendly

Martha was educated in the United States, majoring in psychology as an undergraduate, and studying social psychology at the graduate level at the University of Connecticut. Before moving to Canada in 1971, she became involved in child care/early childhood education as a researcher studying the American Head Start program at Educational Testing Service in Princeton, New Jersey. Following her immigration to Canada, she worked on child care research at the Social Planning Council of Metropolitan Toronto. She became a research coordinator at the University of Toronto's Child in the City program (at the Centre for Urban & Community Studies) in 1978.

Selected works

Selected works by Martha Friendly in chronological order from most recent to least recent.

  • Early childhood education and care in Toronto: Funding the future. (2011). City of Toronto. Children's Services. Full report available.
  • About Canada: Childcare. (2009). With Susan Prentice. Black Point, NS: Fernwood Press. Ordering information.
  • Early childhood education and care in Canada 2008. (2009). With Jane Beach, Carolyn Ferns, Nina Prabhu and Barry Forer. Toronto: Childcare Resource and Research Unit. Full report available.
  • Can Canada walk and chew gum? The state of child care in Canada in 2009. (2009). Our schools/ Our selves, 18 (3), 41-55. Full article in pdf.
  • Why Canada can't work without good child care: How early childhood education and care supports the economy. (2008). CRRU Briefing Note. Toronto: Childcare Resource and Research Unit. Full briefing note in pdf.
  • Canada's legacy of inaction on early childhood education and child care. (2008). Policy Options, 29 (8), 62-67. Full article in pdf.
  • Building a strong and equal partnership between childcare and early childhood education in Canada. (2008). International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy, 2(1), 39-52. Full article in pdf.
  • Canadian early learning and child care and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. (In press). R. Brian Howe & Katherine Covell (Ed.) A Question of Commitment: Children’s Rights in Canada. Toronto: Wilfred Laurier University Press.
  • Early learning and child care in Saskatchewan: Past, present and future. SIPP Public Policy Paper No. 36. (2005). Regina, SK: University of Regina. Saskatchewan Institute of Public Policy. Full paper in pdf.
  • Early childhood education and care in early life. (2004). Raphael, Dennis (Ed.) Social determinants of health: Canadian perspectives. Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press.
  • Canada Background Report. (2003). With Gillian Doherty and Jane Beach. Canada’s contribution to the Thematic Review of Early Childhood Education and Care, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Ottawa: Social Development Canada. Full report in pdf.
  • Early childhood education and care in early life. (In press). Raphael, Dennis (Ed.) Social determinants of health: Canadian perspectives. Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press.
  • Strengthening Canada’s social and economic foundations: Next steps for early childhood education and care. (2004). Policy Options. March: 46-51. Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy. Full paper available in pdf.
  • The state of data on early childhood education and care in Canada. (2003). With Gordon Cleveland, Susan Colley, and Donna Lero. Childcare Resource and Research Unit, University of Toronto. Full paper available in pdf.
  • Social inclusion for Canadian children through early childhood education and care. (2002). With Donna Lero. Perspectives on social inclusion. Toronto: Laidlaw Foundation. Full paper available in pdf.
  • Child care by default or design?: An exploration of differences between non-profit and for-profit Canadian child care centres using the You Bet I Care! datasets. (2002). With Gillian Doherty and Barry Forer. Childcare Resource and Research Unit, University of Toronto. Full paper available in pdf.
  • Is this as good as it gets? Child care as a test case for assessing the Social Union Framework Agreement. (2001). Canadian Review of Social Policy. Number 47: 77-82 Full paper available in pdf.
  • Child care and Canadian federalism in the 1990s: Canary in a coal mine. (2001). In: Cleveland, G. and Krashinsky, M. (Eds.). Our children’s future: Child care policy in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Also available as a CRRU Occasional Paper. Full paper available in pdf.
  • Early childhood education on the Canadian policy landscape. (2000). With Mab Oloman. In Hayden, J. (Ed.) Landscapes in early childhood education. :New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 69-82. .
  • Child care as a social policy issue. (2000). In Prochner, L. and Howe, N. (Eds.) Early childhood care and education in Canada. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press: 252-272.
  • History and vision: Blending child care and early childhood education. (2000). Annual Stapleford Lecture. Regina: University of Regina, Social Policy Research Unit. Full paper available in pdf.
  • A national child care program: Now is the time. (2000). In Paediatrics and Child Health. June/July, Vol. 5, Issue 5. Article in html.
  • Women’s support, women’s work: Child care in an era of deficit reduction, devolution downsizing and deregulation. (1998) With Gillian Doherty and Mab Oloman. Ottawa: Status of Women of Canada. Full report in html and pdf.
  • What is the public interest in child care? (1997). Policy Options. Vol. 18, No. 1:3-6. Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy.
  • Child care at the centre: Child care on the social, economic and political agenda in the 1990’s. (1996). In Pulkingham, J. and Ternowetsky, G. (Eds.). Remaking Canadian social policy: Social security in the late 1990s. Fernwood Publishing: 273-285.
  • Miles to go…The policy context of child care in Canada. (1995). With Laurel Rothman. Child Welfare. Vol. LXXIV, No. 3:503-524. Child Welfare League of America.
  • Child care: Canada can't work without it. (1995). With Gillian Doherty, Ruth Rose, Donna Lero, and Sharon Irwin. Childcare Resource and Research Unit, University of Toronto. Full paper in pdf.
  • Child care policy in Canada: Putting the pieces together. (1994). Addison-Wesley Publishers Ltd.
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