Research and expert perspectives agree that one of the key elements that determines the quality of an early childhood education and care program is the number of adults to children - the ratio/class size. However, it is also clear that the adult: child ratio is not the sole quality-determining element. Other important elements, especially training and qualifications, interact with ratio to form the structural and pedagogical base for quality in an ECEC program.
This detailed paper (full pdf attached below) reviews research and expert opinion from the child care, kindergarten and blended ECEC program literature to consider what is known about effects of staff: child ratios/class sizes on child outcomes and program quality for four and five year olds, and what other key factors should be taken into account.
Briefing note : Ratios for four and five year olds: What does the research say? What else is important?