Occasional paper series

Occasional paper series

Canada's child care workforce

Cover of occasional paper on white background in black text with red border.
Shani Halfon
Occasional paper 35


This paper summarizes what is known about the child care workforce in Canada, the implications of this for regulated childcare, and identifies  some considerations and strategies to address the ongoing issues and improve the overall state of ECEC. A summary of the relevant research and data leads to the conclusion that a coordinated and comprehensive strategy is needed to address the multiple and interconnected variables that impact the working conditions of those in the child care workforce.

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Struggles and sit-ins: The early years of Campus Community Co-operative Day Care Centre and child care in Canada

Image of kids with picket signs on cover of Occasional Paper 33
Julie Mathien
ISBN 978-1-896051-72-7


This paper by long-time child care advocate and policy expert Julie Mathien documents the roots of modern child care policy in Canada through the lens of Campus Community Co-operative Day Care Centre (CCCDCC) at the University of Toronto. The paper describes the rise of community-based child care in Ontario, the first wave of child care advocacy and the 1960s context of progressive political activism. It was written to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Campus Co-op, founded by Toronto feminists in 1969.  

Child care can't wait till the cows come home: Rural child care in the Canadian context

Occasional paper 30 logo
Martha Friendly, Carolyn Ferns, Bethany Grady and Laurel Rothman
Occasional paper 30
September 30, 2016
ISBN 978-1-896051-64-2



The purpose of this paper, aimed at a wide range of stakeholders, is to provide a current overview of the state of rural child care and to stimulate and inform discussion aimed at improving it.

The report includes the following sections as well as references and appendices: 

Work around the clock: A snapshot of non-standard hours child care in Canada

Occasional paper 29 logo
Shani Halfon and Martha Friendly
Occasional paper 29
September 14, 2015
ISBN 978-1-896051-61-1



This report is intended to be a useful tool for policy makers striving to strengthen child care policy and programs, researchers studying child care, family and workplace policy issues, advocates working for accessible high quality child care for all Canadian families and employers of non-standard hours workers. Its main purpose is to provide an up-to-date report on the state of child care for families working non-standard hours in Canada. 

The report includes: 

Inclusion of young children with disabilities in regulated child care in Canada. A snapshot: Research, policy and practice

Occasional paper 27
Shani Halfon and Martha Friendly
Occasional paper 27
July 10, 2013
ISBN 978-1-896051-54-3



This report aims to provide a "snapshot" or inventory of the state of regulated child care for children with disabilities in Canada. It establishes a baseline for considering issues and progress on inclusion of children with disabilities in regulated child care programs. This is especially important as child care continues to receive relatively limited support in policy development and research even as early childhood education and early learning more broadly has begun to enjoy enhanced recognition and policy support.

Childcare markets: Do they work?

Helen Penn
Occasional paper 26
February 15, 2012
ISBN 978-1-896051-53-6


This paper explores some of the conflicting priorities between childcare by for-profit entrepreneurs and non-profit or state systems. The paper considers the limitations of using the market as a workable model for the organisation and delivery of childcare. It presents a brief overview of the reach of economics as a basis for making decisions about childcare, and describes changes in ideas about the application of market principles to traditional welfare contexts.